CASE(S) OF THE WEEK
WONG SHEE KAI v. GOVERNMENT OF MALAYSIA  10 CLJ 1
FEDERAL COURT, PUTRAJAYA
TENGKU MAIMUN TUAN MAT CJ; ABANG ISKANDAR CJ (SABAH AND SARAWAK); VERNON ONG LAM KIAT FCJ; RHODZARIAH BUJANG FCJ; ZABIDIN MOHAMAD DIAH FCJ
[SUIT NO: BKA-1-08-2021(W)]
06 OCTOBER 2022
The Federal Court, in order to guard its exclusive original jurisdiction from abuse, must naturally have the inherent power to set aside any leave granted, pursuant to art. 4(4) of the Federal Court, if the narrow and specific conditions of the art. 4(3) are not met. Leave can only be granted if there is jurisdiction and so, a grant of leave is not capable of becoming the basis of jurisdiction.
CONSTITUTIONAL LAW: Jurisdiction - Federal Court - Petition - Challenge against constitutional validity of ss. 63 and 64 of Anti-Money Laundering, Anti-Terrorism Financing and Proceeds of Unlawful Activities Act 2001 - Whether subject matter of petition within original jurisdiction of court - Whether leave to file petition ought not to have been granted - Whether Federal Court can consider question of own jurisdiction once leave granted - Federal Constitution, art. 4(3) & (4)
Peguam Negara Malaysia v. Mohd Kassim Abd Hamid  6 CLJ 41;  1 LNS 615 affirming the High Court case Peguam Negara Malaysia v. Mohd Kassim Abd Hamid [Criminal Suit No: BA-42(ORS)(A)-1 -09/2019]
Ong Kong Beng & Anor v. Ong Kong Leong & Ors  1 LNS 2651 overruling the High Court case of Ong Kong Leong & Ors v. Ong Kong Beng & Anor [Writ Summon No.: 22NCVC - 497-10/2014]
Legal Network Series
 1 LNS 64
KERAJAAN MALAYSIA lwn. VECTORWOOD SDN BHD
Penyerahan notis mengenai amaun cukai yang perlu dibayar semata-mata adalah tidak memadai untuk menunjukkan bahawa jumlah yang dinyatakan di dalam notis tersebut harus dijelaskan dan jumlah tuntutan tidak boleh dipertikaikan yang mewajarkan satu penghakiman terus diberikan. Hal ini adalah kerana notis tersebut adalah tertakluk kepada rayuan mengikut ss. 99 dan 100 Akta Cukai Pendapatan 1967. Namun demikian, tindakan-tindakan rayuan untuk mempertikaikan jumlah dalam notis cukai bukan merupakan isu yang boleh dibicarakan.
PROSEDUR SIVIL: Penghakiman terus - Isu-isu untuk dibicarakan - Tuntutan cukai yang kena dibayar - Isu dibangkitkan berkenaan taksiran cukai - Sama ada prinsip berkaitan penghakiman terus terpakai bagi tuntutan yang melibatkan cukai - Sama ada rayuan berkenaan nilai taksiran telah dikemukakan oleh defendan mengikut ss. 99 dan 100 Akta Cukai Pendapatan 1967 - Sama ada defendan telah mengambil tindakan yang sewajarnya untuk mempertikaikan jumlah cukai - Sama ada tindakan-tindakan rayuan terhadap notis amaun cukai oleh defendan merupakan isu untuk dibicarakan
- Bagi pihak plaintif - Sharifah Mushelika Farazdia Eliya Sayed Mustafar; Pejabat Lembaga Hasil Dalam Negeri
- Bagi pihak defendan - Richard Bong & Ivan Bong; T/n Bong & Co
 1 LNS 158
SAIFUDDIN NASUTION ISMAIL lwn. ZURAIDAH KAMARUDDIN
Dalam keadaan di mana suatu pliding ada mendedahkan kausa tindakan dan telah menimbulkan persoalan yang layak untuk diputuskan secara perbicaraan penuh, maka adalah tidak wajar untuk mahkamah membatalkan tindakan tersebut. Apabila isu-isu yang dibangkitkan berkenaan kesahihan tuntutan plaintif hanya dapat diputuskan melalui keterangan saksi-saksi, maka adalah tidak wajar untuk membatalkan tindakan tersebut di peringkat permohonan interlokutori bagi pembatalan tindakan.
PROSEDUR SIVIL: Pembatalan - Tindakan - Tindakan oleh setiausaha agung parti politik terhadap bekas anggota parti - Tuntutan bon yang menghendaki anggota parti untuk membayar jumlah yang setimpal dengan kemudahan yang diperolehi daripada parti dan kerugian yang dialami parti akibat tindakan anggota parti - Sama ada isu-isu yang dibangkitkan perlu dibicarakan - Sama ada terdapat kausa tindakan yang munasabah terhadap defendan - Sama ada tindakan wajar dibatalkan tanpa perbicaraan penuh - Sama ada kewujudan persoalan fakta dan undang-undang mewajarkan pembatalan - Sama ada isu berkaitan bon adalah tidak sah dan ultra vires perlu dijelaskan oleh saksi-saksi dalam perbicaraan penuh
- Bagi pihak plaintif - T/n Zharif Nizamuddin
- Bagi pihak defendan - T/n William Leong & Co
 1 LNS 213
PP lwn. PIRABU MANICKAM & YANG LAIN
Tugas pihak pendakwaan untuk membuktikan kes melampaui keraguan yang munasabah tidak akan selesai apabila pihak pendakwaan tidak memanggil saksi penting untuk membuktikan sesuatu kesalahan walaupun saksi tersebut ditawarkan kepada pihak pembelaan.
UNDANG-UNDANG JENAYAH: Bunuh - Kes prima facie - Tertuduh didakwa berada di tempat kejadian bersama si mati - Mangsa telah dipukul dan ditetak dalam suatu pergaduhan - Mangsa berada di bawah pengaruh alkohol dan dadah waktu kejadian - Sama ada wujud DNA tertuduh pada barangan milik mangsa dan senjata yang digunakan untuk menetak mangsa sehingga mati - Sama ada mangsa mati akibat tindakan mangsa sendiri yang di bawah pengaruh dadah dan alkohol yang tinggi - Sama ada orang yang menyebabkan kematian tertuduh telah dikenalpasti secara positif - Sama ada persoalan kemungkinan kewujudan pihak lain dalam pergaduhan telah ditolak oleh pendakwaan - Sama ada elemen-elemen pertuduhan bawah s. 302 Kanun Keseksaan telah dibuktikan
PROSEDUR JENAYAH: Pendakwaan - Kes pendakwaan - Prima facie - Kesalahan bawah ss. 302 dan 147 Kanun Keseksaan - Pihak pendakwaan gagal memanggil saksi yang mendakwa telah melihat kejadian sebagai saksi pendakwaan tetapi menawarkan kepada pihak pembelaan - Sama ada tugas pendakwaan untuk membuktikan kes melampaui keraguan munasabah telah selesai
PROSEDUR JENAYAH: Pertuduhan - Kecacatan - Niat bersama - Pertuduhan hanya menyatakan 'dengan tujuan bersama' - Sama ada pendakwaan gagal menyatakan secara spesifik penyandaran kepada 'dalam mencapai niat bersama' sepertimana s. 34 Kanun Keseksaan - Sama ada pertuduhan adalah defektif
 1 LNS 2309
YU SOON YEN v. LEE SIN SIN
Where a court in a prior suit had granted a temporary custody and protection order pending disposal of any appeals or matter, then the said temporary custody and protection order shall remain until final determination and disposal of all appeals arising from the prior suit and related cases. The temporary custody and protection order will remain even in any new application filed thereafter when appeals arising from the said prior suit and related cases are still pending final determination.
FAMILY LAW: Children - Custody - Appointment of sole guardian - Temporary custody and protection order given in prior civil proceedings - Prior civil suit pending where court had ordered status quo of children be maintained until disposal of criminal court case concerning child abuse by respondent's partner - Whether temporary custody and protection order shall remain until final determination of prior suit and criminal case
- For the applicant - Ram Singh; M/s Ram Singh Harbans & Co
- For the respondent - Jecky Lettong; M/s Lettong & Co
 1 LNS 2272
GST REALTY SDN BHD (IN LIQUIDATION)
In an application for leave to initiate action against a company in liquidation under s. 471 of the Companies Act 2016, the winding-up court will not delve into the merits of the dispute or matter but only examine if the complaints are genuine or if they are baseless and devoid of substance. An applicant seeking leave under the said s. 471 to initiate an action against the company, inter alia for specific performance of a sale and purchase agreement of a property entered between the applicant and the company, must show that their claim is genuine by at least tendering the proof of payment of the said property in their affidavit.
COMPANY LAW: Winding up - Leave to initiate action against company in liquidation - Intended action for specific performance of sale and purchase agreement of property - Sale and purchase agreement entered between applicant and company in liquidation - Property was not transferred in applicant's name despite full purchase price allegedly paid - Property under housing project - Receiver and manager has taken over control of housing project - Whether allegation of payment of full purchase price proven - Whether mere issuance of letter to liquidator alleging payment of purchase of property was sufficient to prove real, genuine and serious dispute - Whether there was a prima facie case against liquidator - Companies Act 2016, s. 471
- For the applicants - Pang Yong Tung; M/s S K Song
- For the respondent - Pamela Ephraim; M/s Ephraim & Associates
CLJ 2022 Volume 9 (Part 6)
Participation in trade union activities alone by a trade union member or officer in the capacity as a trade union member or officer, in the name of the trade union, ought not to be a ground for dismissal. Such activities must be established to have been carried out maliciously or was knowingly or recklessly false. The employer must consider the dual aspects, ie, the employee's work as well as the statutory provisions affording protection in relation to the trade union activities, before deciding on the employee's dismissal.
Ismail Nasaruddin Abdul Wahab v. Malaysian Airline System Bhd  9 CLJ 801 [FC]
LABOUR LAW Employment - Dismissal - Employee also President of National Union of Flight Attendants Malaysia - Issuance of press statement in capacity as Union leader - Whether to be considered in decision to terminate employment - Whether role as Union leader intertwined with employment - Whether action fell within scope of trade union activities - Whether participation in lawful activities of trade union - Whether dismissal amounted to act of victimisation and unfair labour practice - Industrial Relations Act 1967, s. 18 - Employment Act 1955, s. 8 - Trade Unions Act 1959, ss. 21 & 22
NALLINI PATHMANATHAN FCJ
HASNAH MOHAMMED HASHIM FCJ
HARMINDAR SINGH DHALIWAL FCJ
- For the appellant - Ambiga Sreenevasan & Lim Wei Jit; M/s Sreenevasan
- For the respondent - N Sivabalah & Jamie Goh; M/s Shearn Delamore & Co
(i) Vacant possession is not synonymous with right of occupation, as clearly defined in the sale and purchase agreement. The developer only required to physically complete the works and provide a certificate of practical completion to provide vacant possession; it matters not if the premises is connected with essential utilities; (ii) letters by the architect of a project merely serves the purpose of informing the purchaser of the delay of the project; it does not qualify as a certificate of extension of time which would justify the developer's delaying in the delivery of vacant possession of the premises; (iii) when a purchaser successfully discharges its burden of proof that there was a breach of contract and the sale and purchase agreement contains a clause specifying a sum to be paid upon the breach, the purchaser is entitled to the liquidated ascertained damages (LAD), especially when the rate of the LAD is fair and reasonable.
Icon City Development Sdn Bhd v. K-Shin Corporation Sdn Bhd  9 CLJ 827 [CA]
LAND LAW: Housing developers - Vacant possession - Delay in delivering vacant possession - Claim for liquidated ascertained damages (LAD) - Whether architect's letters valid extensions of time under sale and purchase agreement - Whether vacant possession synonymous with right of occupation - Whether rate of LAD fair and reasonable - Whether purchaser's action against developer premature
LEE SWEE SENG JCA
LEE HENG CHEONG JCA
MARIANA YAHYA JCA
- For the appellant - Justin Voon Tiam Yu, Lee Chooi Peng & Lim Xin Yi; M/s Justin Voon Chooi & Wing
- For the respondent - Joshua Chong Wan Ken, Khor Yongshi & Chan Jia Her; M/s Raja, Darryl & Loh
(i) It is manifestly clear from the words of s. 80(8) and (9) of the Legal Profession Act 1976 ('LPA') that the victim of any dishonest act of an advocate and solicitor, or his clerk or servant, whether the advocate and solicitor is practicing as a sole proprietor or in partnership with others, or whether the advocate and solicitor has a valid practicing certificate at the material time, may make a claim from the compensation fund for any loss suffered by him from that act of dishonesty. The Majlis Peguam Malaysia ('Majlis') does not have such powers to issue Guidelines to restrict claims only to acts of dishonesty of advocates and solicitors who are sole proprietors; (ii) The Majlis is a statutory body and the exercise of statutory powers are justiciable and open to scrutiny of the courts. The act of the Majlis in arriving at a decision vide an ultra vires act, could not be shielded by applying s. 111 of the LPA.
Michael Joseph Carvalho & Anor v. Majlis Peguam Malaysia  9 CLJ 849 [CA]
LEGAL PROFESSION: Solicitors - Criminal breach of trust - Dishonesty - Failure to make payment of stakeholder sum to appellants - Solicitor struck off Roll of Advocates and Solicitors - Whether appellants entitled to be compensated for loss from compensation fund - Imposition by guidelines of condition that only losses arising from dishonesty of advocates and solicitors who practice as sole proprietors covered under compensation fund - Whether ultra vires provisions of Legal Profession Act 1976 - Whether s. 111 of Legal Profession Act 1976 applicable to protect respondent from action or legal proceedings
HAS ZANAH MEHAT JCA
VAZEER ALAM MYDIN MEERA JCA
NORDIN HASSAN JCA
- For the appellant - Subashini Gunasegaran & Baljeet Kaur; M/s VT Singam, D Gunasegaran & Co
- For the respondent - Savithiri Ganesan; M/s Savi Ganesan & Co
The land administrator, in conducting a land enquiry, is not obliged to accept the valuation done by any one of the party's valuer, even if such valuation is accepted by the other party. It is not for the parties to agree on the market value or any other valuation. The law gives that discretion to the land administrator. The land administrator decides on the adequacy of compensation, as provided in s. 12 of the Land Acquisition Act 1960; the valuation report prepared by the Government valuer or the private valuer merely act as a guide in determining the award of compensation.
Northern Green Ventures Sdn Bhd v. Pentadbir Tanah, Hulu Langat  9 CLJ 865 [CA]
LAND LAW: Acquisition - Compensation - Objection - Difference in valuation by parties' valuers - Whether land administrator obliged to accept valuation by any one of party's valuer - Whether correct valuation should be one higher of two - Whether rejection of claim for injurious affection/severance correct - Whether there was breach of natural justice during land enquiry - Whether remaining land severed by compulsory acquisition legally inaccessible - Whether there should be compensation for costs of constructing bridge to provide access to scheduled land under claim for injurious affection - Whether application for building or planning permission requirement or pre-condition to claim for compensation - Land Acquisition Act 1960
NOR BEE ARIFFIN JCA
VAZEER ALAM MYDIN MEERA JCA
MARIANA YAHYA JCA
- For the appellant - Raymond Mah, Denise Phang & Eric Toh; M/s Mah Weng Kwai & Assocs
- For the respondent - Nur Irmawatie Daud & Mohd Abdul Hakim Mohd Ali; SLOs, Selangor
In a matter where freedom of expression and/or where fundamental liberties are being stifled, a reasoned decision must be given. Otherwise, it will violate the principles of procedural fairness guaranteed by art. 8 of the Federal Constitution.
Chong Ton Sin & Ors v. Menteri Dalam Negeri & Anor  9 CLJ 898 [HC]
| CONSTITUTIONAL LAW
ADMINISTRATIVE LAW: Judicial review - Application for - Application by author and publisher against decision of Minister of Home Affairs in imposing ban against publication of book - Book on homosexuality from Christian's perspective - Whether book likely to be prejudicial to public order, morality and public interest - Whether ban illegal - Whether book form of expression protected by art. 10(1)(a) of Federal Constitution - Whether ban irrational, disproportionate and excessive - Whether applicants denied right to be heard - Printing Presses and Publications Act 1984, s. 7(1)
CONSTITUTIONAL LAW: Fundamental liberties - Right to be heard - Application by author and publisher against decision of Minister of Home Affairs in imposing ban against publication of book - Book on homosexuality from Christian's perspective - Whether applicants denied right to be heard - Whether there was violation of procedural fairness - Federal Constitution, arts. 5(1) & 8(1)
- For the applicants - Edmund Bon Tai Soon & Michael Cheah Ern Tien; M/s Amerbon
- For the respondents - Mohammad Sallehuddin Md Ali, FC
(i) In construing a will, the intention of the testator is paramount and must be given effect to. The intention is to be derived from the wordings of the will. The duty of the court is to give effect to the wishes of the testator; and (ii) a no-contest clause in a will is only effective if the testator demonstrates it by the inclusion of a gift over that he is indeed in earnest.
Hong Lee Peng & Ors v. Hong Shaw Lin & Ors  9 CLJ 919 [HC]
SUCCESSION: Will - Trustee - Breach of duty - Removal of trustee - Allegation that trustee acted in breach of instructions under will - Whether trustee given absolute discretion to administer estate of deceased under will - Whether intended by deceased - Whether there was reason to interfere with wishes of deceased - Whether there was sufficient cause to remove trustee - Probate and Administration Act 1959, s. 34
SUCCESSION: Will - Clause - No-contest clause - Will contained no-contest clause - Whether testator intended to impose clause - Whether there was gift over - Whether no-contest clause enforceable
- For the plaintiffs - Andrew Chiew Ean Vooi & Nicola Tang Zhan Ying; M/s Lee Hishammudin Allen & Gledhill.
- For the defendants - Yeoh Kong Hwa & Lee Fey Yee; M/s Azam-Malek & Soh
A record of appeal that is not served within the time stipulated and does not contain a memorandum of appeal as required by O. 55 r. 4 of the Rules of Court 2012 is defective and incompetent. Without the extension of time to regularise the irregularities, there is no valid appeal before the court.
Lim Kwee Fen & Anor v. KT Home Mart Sdn Bhd  9 CLJ 943 [HC]
CIVIL PROCEDURE: Appeal - Record of appeal - Whether served within time - Whether served via electronic filing service - Whether there was failure to include memorandum of appeal in record of appeal - Whether appeal defective and incompetent - Rules of Court 2012, O. 55 rr. 2, 4(1), 4(8), O. 62 r. 6(1) & O. 92 r. 4
AMARJEET SINGH SERJIT SINGH J
- For the applicant - Tan Zi Kang; M/s Yeoh Shim Siow & Lay Kuan
- For the respondent - Lim Yee; M/s Chieng & Lum Assocs
(i) The time for applying to set aside a default judgment runs from the receipt of the order/judgment, not from when a defendant comes to know of it; and (ii) the annulment of an adjudicating order necessarily means that there had never been any adjudication and there was never a bankrupt. In such situation, there is no requirement on a plaintiff to obtain any leave of the court to file a writ against a defendant.
Maybank Islamic Bhd v. Sunhor Builders Sdn Bhd & Ors  9 CLJ 956 [HC]
CIVIL PROCEDURE: Judgments and orders - Default judgment - Setting aside - Application to set aside default judgment - Whether date runs from receipt of order/judgment or when applicant came to know of order/judgment - Whether there was delay in application - Whether there were valid, cogent or acceptable explanation for delay - Whether extension of time ought to be allowed - Rules of Court 2012, O. 13 r. 8 & O. 42 r. 13
CIVIL PROCEDURE: Judgments and orders - Default judgment - Setting aside - Default judgment entered against bankrupt - Bankruptcy order annulled - Whether leave of court obtained - Whether judgment ought to be set aside - Whether annulment of bankruptcy order meant that there had never been any adjudication and there was no bankrupt - Whether default judgment regular - Whether applicant entitled to set aside default judgment ex debito justitiae
- For the plaintiff - Noraini Yacob; M/s Sidek Teoh Wong & Dennis
- For the defendants - Muhammad Fairuz Ahmad Yusof; M/s Fairuz
ADMISSIBILITY OF ILLEGALLY AND IMPROPERLY OBTAINED EVIDENCE IN NIGERIA — A LESSON FROM THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA AND THE UNITED KINGDOM [Read excerpt]
by Gambo ABDULSALAM*  1 LNS(A) cx
 1 LNS(A) cx
ADMISSIBILITY OF ILLEGALLY AND IMPROPERLY OBTAINED EVIDENCE IN NIGERIA —
A LESSON FROM THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA AND THE UNITED KINGDOM
By the provision of section 36(1) and (5) of the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, 1999 (as amended) ('Constitution of Nigeria'), every accused is entitled to the right to a fair hearing and the presumption of innocence until proven guilty in accordance with the procedure permitted by law. In a complementary manner to the Constitution, the country's Administration of Criminal Justice Act, 2015 provides for a host of procedures which shall be complied with by the police in a criminal investigation. Among the provisions are sections 6, 15(3) and 17(2) of the Act, which provides a suspect with the right to silence until after consultation with a legal practitioner of his choice, members of the Legal Aid Council, and members of civil society or other persons of his choice. The Act requires further that statement, when volunteered, shall be video or audio recorded in the presence of a counsel for the suspect or other persons of his choice without providing consequences for non-compliance. In contrast, the country's Evidence Act, 2011 provides for the admissibility of evidence improperly obtained where the same is relevant. In this paper, the writer uses the doctrinal research method to explore whether the legal regime on the admissibility of improperly obtained evidence under the 2011 Act is inconsistent with the international standard on the right to a fair hearing enshrined in the Constitution. In the final analysis, the writer makes recommendations for reform.
. . .
CHOICE OF LAW FOR TORTS IN THE VIRTUAL WORLD AND THE FUTURE OF VIRTUAL DISPUTE RESOLUTION* [Read excerpt]
by Ronald JJ Wong**  1 LNS(A) cxi
 1 LNS(A) cxi
CHOICE OF LAW FOR TORTS IN THE VIRTUAL WORLD AND THE FUTURE OF VIRTUAL DISPUTE RESOLUTION*
Ronald JJ Wong**
What law applies to torts and non-contractual wrongs in the online virtual world when the parties and acts traverse different jurisdictions? How does the choice of law rules operate? What novel approaches to this area of law and to online dispute resolution are possible in the horizon? This article explores these questions.
Let us imagine that someone in the metaverse or on the Internet did a wrong to you (outside of a contractual relationship), e.g. defamed you, cheated you, or passed off as your business. That someone is from another country A. The act had effects in yet another country B. Or the act was done such that technically, the relevant communications were published in a physical server in yet another country C. What law would apply to your claim?
. . .
||In force from
||Akta Tabung Angkatan Tentera 1973
||1 November 2022 [PU(B) 510/2022]
||Seksyen 2, 4, 6, 8, 9, 9A, 11, 12, 15, 24, 25 dan Jadual Kedua
||Tabung Angkatan Tentera Act 1973
||1 November 2022 [PU(B) 510/2022]
||Sections 2, 4, 6, 8, 9, 9A, 11, 12, 15, 24, 25 and Second Schedule
||Akta Industri Biobahan Api Malaysia 2007
||1 November 2022
||Malaysian Biofuel Industry Act 2007
||1 November 2022
||Poisons Act 1952 (Revised 1989)
||6 October 2022
||In force from
||Perintah Kawalan Harga Dan Antipencatutan (Penandaan Harga Barangan Harga Terkawal) (No. 7) 2022
||12 Oktober 2022
||Price Control and Anti-Profiteering (Price Marking of Price-Controlled Goods) (No. 7) Order 2022
||12 October 2022
||Perintah Kawalan Harga Dan Antipencatutan (Penentuan Harga Maksimum) (No. 10) 2022
||8 Oktober 2022 hingga 7 November 2022
||Price Control and Anti-Profiteering (Determination of Maximum Price) (No. 10) Order 2022
||8 October 2022 to 7 November 2022
||Perintah Kawalan Harga Dan Antipencatutan (Penentuan Harga Maksimum) (No. 9) 2022
||8 Oktober 2022 hingga 7 November 2022