CASE(S) OF THE WEEK
PP v. AHMAD SAIFUL ISLAM MOHAMAD  2 CLJ 714
COURT OF APPEAL, PUTRAJAYA
KAMALUDIN MD SAID JCA; GUNALAN MUNIANDY JCA; HASHIM HAMZAH JCA
[CRIMINAL APPEAL NO: W-09-282-11-2021]
20 JANUARY 2023
Courts are bound to observe judicial hierarchy for the orderly development of legal rules as well as for the courts and lawyers to regulate their affairs. The doctrine of stare decisis provides certainty and uniformity in the law and stabilises the law, hence, is an indispensable foundation to a decision. The Court of Appeal, as the highest court to determine appeals in criminal matters emanating from subordinate courts, when faced with two conflicting decisions of the Court of Appeal, ought to follow the later decision for there to be a finality and certainty in the law.
CRIMINAL PROCEDURE: Appeal - Appeal against conviction and sentence - Break in chain of evidence - Charge under s. 15 of Dangerous Drugs Act 1952 - Collection of urine samples - Discrepancy in labelling of bottle containing sample - Whether affected identity and credibility of sample - Whether conviction safe
JURISDICTION: Court of Appeal - Powers and jurisdiction - Court of Appeal highest court to determine appeals for criminal matters originating from subordinate courts - Application of doctrine of stare decisis - Whether principles governing Federal Court in Dalip Bhagwan Singh v. PP equally applicable to Court of Appeal - Whether later decision prevailed over earlier decision - Whether Magistrate correct in following later decision of Court of Appeal
Sani Puah v. PP  1 LNS 2349 affirming the High Court case of PP v. Sani Puah  1 LNS 78
Changshi Sdn Bhd & Ors v. Juang Antara Bina Sdn Bhd  1 LNS 2347 overulling the High Court case of Juang Antara Bina Sdn Bhd & Anor v. Changshi Sdn Bhd & Ors  1 LNS 1274
Legal Network Series
 1 LNS 17
PP v. MATIN SAHID
1. There is no requirement to prepare a search list when a seizure or search is made pursuant to the Dangerous Drugs Act 1952. It follows that the requirement under s. 64 of the Criminal Procedure Code for all things seized during a search to be prepared and signed by the officer doing the search does not arise.
2. It does not matter whether an accused owns a premise or otherwise when there is no reasonable doubt as to the identity of the accused being a person having close proximity to the drugs found in the said premise at the time of the arrest.
CRIMINAL LAW: Dangerous drugs - Trafficking - Actual possession - Accused found together with drugs in a house during a raid - Accused was seated alone in such close proximity to drugs with his hands on the table where drugs were placed - Whether accused had custody and control of drugs - Whether accused had requisite knowledge of drugs - Whether there was a need to invoke presumption under s. 37 of Dangerous Drugs Act 1952 ('DDA') to prove possession - Whether presumption under s. 37(da)(xvi) DDA triggered - Whether there was reasonable doubt as to identity of accused
CRIMINAL PROCEDURE: Defence - Dangerous drugs - Allegation that accused was fixed or framed by police - Whether there was sufficient evidence of motive by any police officers to frame or fix accused
EVIDENCE: Search - Search list - Seizure made pursuant to Dangerous Drugs Act 1952 - Whether there was a need to prepare search list - Whether reference on items seized as stated in police report of arresting officer on the same day of arrest was sufficient to corroborate evidence on seizure of drugs - Whether there was causal confusion or reasonable doubt over identity of drugs - Criminal Procedure Code, s. 64
- For the prosecution - DPP Mohammad Ali Imran; Jabatan Peguam Negara Malaysia, Tawau
- For the accused - Muhammad Abdul Karim; M/s Sazalye Donol, Muhammad & Co
 1 LNS 30
MGM GRAND PARADISE S A v. NG CHEE MENG
An agreement to merely acquire casino chips on a credit basis from a foreign company is valid, enforceable and not against public policy. Any debt arising from such an agreement is actionable and recoverable in Malaysia.
CIVIL PROCEDURE: Summary judgment - Triable issue - Claim for debt owed under credit arrangement - Allegation that credit arrangement was to facilitate gambling by defendant - Failure to respond to letter of demand - Whether defendant's denial of executing documents with plaintiff was bare allegation - Whether defendant had compromised his contention there was triable issue - Whether it was inequitable for defendant to resile from arrangement made with plaintiff - Whether credit agreement was valid and enforceable - Whether debt under credit agreement is actionable and recoverable in Malaysia
CIVIL PROCEDURE: Jurisdiction - Forum conveniens - Plaintiff was a foreign company who sued defendant for being Malaysian - Whether Malaysian court had jurisdiction to decide on plaintiff's claim - Whether defendant had submitted to jurisdiction of Malaysian Court - Whether issue on jurisdiction of court amounts to triable issue
- For the plaintiff - Jolin Yew; M/s Jeff Leong Poon & Wong
- For the defendant - Leslie Looi Meng; M/s Dennis Nik & Wong
 1 LNS 33
PP v. OTHMAN LATIP
Public interest element certainly merits consideration in sentencing where an offence committed involved a security offence such as s. 26J of the Anti-Trafficking in Persons and Anti-Smuggling of Migrants Act 2007. Malaysia's reputation in the global war on human trafficking too must be considered when imposing the sentence.
CRIMINAL PROCEDURE: Sentencing - Principles - Public interest - Offence under s. 26J of Anti-Trafficking in Persons and Anti-Smuggling of Migrants Act 2007 - Mitigation - Plea of guilt before commencement of trial - Whether public interest element certainly merits consideration - Whether accused could rely on s. 172G of Criminal Procedure Code in determining his sentence - Whether court was bound by trend of sentencing
CRIMINAL PROCEDURE: Forfeiture - Order of - Forfeiture of conveyance used in commission of crime under s. 26J of Anti-Trafficking in Persons and Anti-Smuggling of Migrants Act 2007 ('ATIPSOM') - Application under s. 36 of ATIPSOM - Vehicle not owned by accused - Whether court has discretion to make order of forfeiture - Whether vehicle should be returned to its owner
- For the prosecution - Nursyamim Fateha Mohd Amin, Timbalan Pendakwa Raya; Pejabat Penasihat Undang-Undang Negeri Johor
- For the accused - Nur Afiqah Hambali; M/s Muhammad Abd Kadir & Co
 1 LNS 863
PERSATUAN KESELAMATAN PENGKULTUR-PENGKULTUR RUMPAI LAUT DMF MALAYSIA & YANG LAIN lwn. RAYMOND HO KAI MIN & SATU LAGI
Suatu tuntutan adalah mengaibkan, remeh, menyusahkan dan jelas bertujuan untuk mengelirukan apabila plaintif mengubah pendirian yang bertentangan dengan plidingnya semata-mata untuk mewujudkan dakwaan fakta dengan niat untuk mengenakan liabiliti ke atas defendan. Penukaran pendirian oleh plaintif di dalam pliding untuk kepentingannya semata-mata adalah suatu penyalahgunaan proses mahkamah yang tidak wajar dibenarkan.
PROSEDUR SIVIL: Pembatalan - Tindakan - Tuntutan difailkan terhadap broker insurans berasaskan kemungkiran kewajipan berhati-hati selepas bayaran di bawah polisi insurans ditolak oleh syarikat insurans - Pernyataan tuntutan tidak memplidkan kewujudan suatu priviti kontrak antara plaintif dan defendan - Plaintif mendakwa secara umum bahawa defendan telah memberi representasi salah - Sama ada pernyataan tuntutan telah mendedahkan suatu kausa tindakan yang munasabah - Sama ada plaintif berubah pendirianya dalam pliding dengan tujuan mengenakan liabiliti ke atas defendan - Sama ada tuntutan plaintif adalah mengaibkan dan jelas bertujuan mengelirukan - Sama ada tuntutan plaintif telah dihalang had masa
- Bagi pihak plaintif - Jennifer Ang Cai Er; T/n Davis & Low
- Bagi pihak defendan-defendan - Khairul Hazwan Rashid Mohd Redduan; T/n Thomas Lai & Wallace Wong
 1 LNS 864
ASOK KUMAR RAJARATHENAM lwn. PP
Tahanan reman berkuatkuasa sebaik sahaja perintah ke atas permohonan reman dibenarkan dan kemudiannya ditandatangani oleh Majistret. Dengan kelulusan permohonan tahanan reman tersebut oleh Majistret dan berkuatkuasanya waran reman yang dikeluarkan selaras dengan perintah reman tersebut, maka orang yang ditangkap tidak lagi dianggap berada dalam tahanan polis. Sebaliknya tahanan ke atas orang yang ditangkap selepas itu dan sehingga dia dibebaskan dengan jaminan polis adalah dianggap sebagai tahanan lanjutan menurut waran reman yang telah dikeluarkan oleh Majistret menurut s. 117 Kanun Tatacara Jenayah.
PROSEDUR JENAYAH: Semakan - Permohonan untuk - Mencabar kesahan perintah tahanan reman yang dikeluarkan oleh Majistret - Sama ada perintah tahanan reman telah gagal mematuhi peruntukan ss. 117 dan 119 Kanun Tatacara Jenayah - Sama ada perintah reman adalah bertujuan untuk menyelesaikan penyiasatan atau memulakan penyiasatan - Sama ada orang yang ditangkap boleh dianggap berada dalam tahanan polis selepas permohonan reman dikeluarkan - Sama ada orang yang ditangkap berhak untuk meminta dan melihat diari siasatan pegawai siasatan walaupun ia dirujuk kepada mahkamah - Sama ada kegagalan Majistret untuk menyatakan alasan kelulusan perintah tahanan secara lengkap boleh menjejaskan kesahan perintah tahanan reman
- Bagi pihak pemohon - Shamsher Singh Thind; Gunamalar Law Chambers
- Bagi pihak responden - Mohammad Nazri Abdul Rahim, Timbalan Pendakwa Raya; Ibu Pejabat Penasihat Undang-Undang Negeri
CLJ 2023 Volume 2 (Part 4)
A judicial determination by the Syariah Court that a person is still a Muslim, must necessarily mean he/she is a Muslim and not one who was never a Muslim; (ii) the law, as enshrined in the Federal Constitution, does not countenance any review or appeal, let alone re-litigation or unravelling by the civil court, of a decision which is within the exclusive jurisdiction of the Syariah Court.
Majlis Agama Islam Selangor v. Dahlia Dhaima Abdullah & Another Appeal  2 CLJ 513 [CA]
| ISLAMIC LAW
| STATUTORY INTERPRETATION
CONSTITUTIONAL LAW: Jurisdiction - Courts - Person not professing religion of Islam - Conversion to Islam at age of five by mother without consent of father but continued to practice Hindu religion - Syariah Courts declared that person still Muslim - Whether case of apostasy/renunciation - Whether ab initio case - Whether matter falling within jurisdiction of civil court/Syariah Court - Whether jurisdiction of civil court ousted - Whether person fit statutory definition of Muslim - Federal Constitution, art. 121(1A)
ISLAMIC LAW: Conversion - Conversion to Islam - Validity - Person not professing religion of Islam - Conversion to Islam at age of five by mother without consent of father but continued to practice Hindu religion - Whether conversion valid - Whether there was proof of affirmative profession of religion of Islam - Administration of Islamic Law (Federal Territories) Act 1993, s. 2
STATUTORY INTERPRETATION: 'Muslim' - Administration of Islamic Law (Federal Territories) Act 1993, s. 2 - Whether definition concerns one's faith or identity under law - Whether person practices religion or not consideration in determining 'person professing the religion of Islam'
YAACOB MD SAM JCA
RAVINTHRAN PARAMAGURU JCA
MOHD NAZLAN MOHD GHAZALI JCA
- For the 1st appellant - Haniff Khatri & Majdah Muda; M/s Muda
- For the 2nd appellant - Salim Soib & Husna Abdul Halim; Selangor State Legal Advisor
- For the respondent - Malik Imtiaz Sarwar & Surendra Ananth; M/s Surendra Ananth
In exercising its power to sanction a scheme of arrangement, the court will consider whether: (i) the provisions of the statute have been complied with; (ii) the class is fairly represented by those who attended the meeting and the statutory majority are acting bona fide and are not coercing the minority in order to promote interests adverse to those of the class whom they purport to represent; and (iii) the arrangement is such as an intelligent and honest man, a member of the class concerned and acting in respect of his interest, might reasonably approve.
BGMC Holdings Bhd v. Fulloop Sdn Bhd & Ors  2 CLJ 558 [HC]
COMPANY LAW: Arrangement, scheme of - Sanction - Company proposed scheme of arrangement to pay off debts, continue major projects and continue as going concern - Whether statutory requirements under s. 366(1) and (3) of Companies Act 2016 complied with - Whether requirement that 75% of total value of creditors or class of creditors or members of class of members present and voting had been met - Whether class was fairly represented by those who attended meeting - Whether statutory majority were acting bona fide and not coercing minority in order to promote interests adverse to those of class whom they purported to represent - Whether scheme was such as intelligent and honest member, member of class concerned and acting in respect of his interest, might reasonably approved
- For the applicant - Yap Boon Hau & Goh Zhi En; M/s Mah-Kamariyah & Philip Koh
- For the respondents - Lee Kai Jun; M/s Wayne Siang, Kai & Co
Social Security Organisation ('SOCSO') is empowered to decide a nominee's status of employment based on the relevant documents and upon examining the totality of the facts presented by a nominee. The determination of a contract of employment could not be made merely based on the title attached to it; the contract, whether for service or of service, must be determined after considering the nature of duties and functions performed by the employee under the contract.
Measat Broadcast Networks System Sdn Bhd v. Ketua Pengarah Pertubuhan Keselamatan Sosial  2 CLJ 602 [HC]
LABOUR LAW: Employment - Employee - Claim under Employees' Social Security Act 1969 ('Act') consequent to accident - Whether employee entered into contract for service or of service - Whether fitted scope and definition of word 'employee' under s. 2(5) of Act - Whether Social Security Organisation ('SOCSO') has power to decide status of employment - Whether decided based on proper investigation - Whether SOCSO Appellate Board correctly decided that employee was engaged under contract of service
- For the appellant - David Tan Seng Keat; M/s T Thavalingam & Co
- For the respondent - Saiyidah Sidek & Mohd Rosly Khady Ayub Khan; M/s Hisham Sobri & Kadir
Keterangan lisan tidak boleh mengubah apa-apa keterangan dokumen seperti yang diperuntukkan oleh ss. 91 dan 92 Akta Keterangan 1950. Walau bagaimanapun, apabila elemen-elemen pertuduhan, dalam kes ini pertuduhan bawah s. 420 Kanun Keseksaan, wujud sebelum pemeteraian perjanjian, tertuduh akan disabitkan atas pertuduhan itu.
Mohd Suhaizal Mat Sulaiman lwn. PP  2 CLJ 614 [HC]
UNDANG-UNDANG JENAYAH: Kanun Keseksaan - Seksyen 420 - Penipuan wang - Elemen-elemen kesalahan - Sama ada dibuktikan - Sama ada elemen-elemen kesalahan wujud sebelum perjanjian ditandatangani - Sama ada perjanjian bersifat camouflage - Sama ada tindakan sivil dan pemulangan sebahagian wang mematahkan elemen-elemen pertuduhan bawah s. 420
- Bagi pihak perayu - Abdul Rashid Tasin & Wan Shahrizal Wan Ladin; T/n Rashid Tasin & Co
- Bagi pihak pendakwaan - Wan Arif Muzammil Wan Mohamed; TPR
While the evidence led by the plaintiff must be assumed to be true, the burden of proof, at all times, is borne by the plaintiff, where the defendant elected to submit no case to answer. The fact that the defendant led no evidence or called no witnesses did not absolve the plaintiff from discharging its burden of proof.
New Ever Korea Travel Co Ltd v. Ever Korea Service (M) Sdn Bhd  2 CLJ 625 [HC]
CIVIL PROCEDURE: Trial - Submission of no case to answer - Burden of proof - Whether on plaintiff to discharge on balance of probabilities - Whether defendant's election not to lead evidence and no witnesses called absolved plaintiff from burden of proof - Whether proof of damages without proof of amount claimed insufficient - Whether account books must be produced to prove amount of claim - Whether failure to call makers of documents rendered claim failed
- For the plaintiff - Alex Gan Yi Yang & Ng Shawn; M/s Vilasiny Gan & Co
- For the defendant - P Taneswaran; M/s Tanes, Khoo & Paulraj
The terms of a consent order entered into between parties do not prevent a plaintiff from claiming late payment charges - even if the compensation sum has been deposited in court.
Southern Realty (Malaya) Sdn Bhd v. Pentadbir Tanah Daerah Dan Pejabat Tanah Sepang & Anor  2 CLJ 643 [HC]
CIVIL PROCEDURE: Judgments and order - Consent order - Parties entered into consent order for payment of judgment sum - Application for satisfaction of sums due - Compensation deposited into court - Whether ss. 32 and 43 of Land Acquisition Act 1960 applicable for purposes of claiming late payment charges of 8% - Whether application for certificate under s. 33 of Government Proceedings Act 1956 appropriate
- For the plaintiff - M/s Lovelace & Hastings
- For the defendants - Selangor State Legal Advisor
A buyer in a sale of goods transaction is entitled to, at once, treat a contract as at an end if the goods delivered by the seller clearly do not meet the agreed specifications and/or are not of merchantable quality and/or are not fit for the purposes of the sale. This goes down to the root of the contract and the buyer is under no obligation to wait to see what may happen. He may immediately cancel the contract and rid himself of the difficulty.
Yayasan Hasanah v. Mohd Nizam Mohd Nasir & Anor  2 CLJ 654 [HC]
CONTRACT: Breach - Sale of goods - Damages - Claim for - Purchase of goods based on representations made by seller - Specifications of goods spelled out in purchase orders/invoices - Substantial amount of goods delivered had defects and did not meet specifications agreed between parties - Buyer terminated contract - Whether seller in breach of contract - Whether there was misrepresentation - Whether buyer accepted goods delivered - Whether buyer entitled to terminate contract and claim for damages - Whether seller unjustly enriched - Sale of Goods Act 1957, ss. 4(1), 15 & 16
TORT: Misrepresentation - Sale of goods - Purchase of goods based on representations made by seller - Specifications of goods spelt out in purchase orders/invoices - Substantial amount of goods delivered had defects and did not meet specifications agreed between parties - Buyer terminated contract - Whether director of seller company personally liable for tort of deceit and/or fraudulent misrepresentation - Measure of damages
- For the plaintiff - Kenny Lam Kian Yip & Stephanie Chong Keh Yin; M/s Rosli Dahlan Saravana Partnership
- For the defendants - Syarah Syazwan & Ramlan Khamis; M/s Ramlan Khamis & Co
FILMOGRAPHY RELATED TO THRILLER AND INTERRELATIONS WITH NATURAL LAW [Read excerpt]
by  1 LNS(A) xvii
 1 LNS(A) xvii
FILMOGRAPHY RELATED TO THRILLER AND INTERRELATIONS WITH NATURAL LAW
Fiction in the thriller genre focuses on stories with high drama, suspense, and excitement. It frequently crosses over with other literary and cinematic subgenres like crime, adventure, and espionage. These days, there are numerous criminal drama series available on Netflix that make viewers empathise with murderers due to the way they are portrayed in the show. The real crime community would see a rise in fangirling over the killers, creating fan accounts for them, and producing TikTok videos defending them. Examples of the criminal filmographies that will be covered in this paper include Dahmer – Monster: The Jeffrey Dahmer Story, Extremely Wicked, Shockingly Evil and Vile, the Ted Bundy Series, and The Good Nurse and more. This paper aims to link criminal filmmaking with jurisprudence, mainly focusing on the natural law, which are the theory of morality, the theory of ethical relativism and the theory of interests. This study offers a brief representation of the perceived ethical difficulties that filmmakers, directors and producer-directors identify in the exercise of their trade. Furthermore, this study shows the importance of continuing and open discourse regarding ethical issues in filming. Filmmakers need to evolve a common concept of just ways to balance their many commitments as well as a more broadly accepted awareness of the nature of their challenges. It is essential to limit any severe alterations or impact of humans by unnatural, ferocious, and harsh forces to orient human behaviour toward preserving civilisations, morality, and customs.
. . .
DISCLOSURE OF A PROSECUTION WITNESS'S PRIOR STATEMENTS* [Read excerpt]
by Mervyn Cheong[i] Chooi Jing Yen[ii]  1 LNS(A) xviii
 1 LNS(A) xviii
DISCLOSURE OF A PROSECUTION WITNESS'S PRIOR STATEMENTS*
Chooi Jing Yen[ii]
A Commentary on Pigg, Derek Gordon v. Public Prosecutor  SGHC 5. The High Court has held that a prosecution witness's prior statements can fall within the ambit of the prosecution's Kadar disclosure obligations even though such statements are presumptively inadmissible. Yet a prosecution's breach of its Kadar obligations does not automatically overturn a conviction. How does the Court's finding impact criminal discovery and defence counsels' litigation strategy in Singapore?
The landscape on criminal discovery in Singapore has changed significantly since 2010 with the enactment of the criminal case disclosure provisions under the Criminal Procedure Code 2010 (CPC), as well as case law developments beginning with Muhammad bin Kadar and another v. Public Prosecutor  3 SLR 1205 (Kadar).
Some time passed before the law was further developed in Muhammad Nabill bin Mohd Fuad v. Public Prosecutor  1 SLR 984 (Nabill) in which the Court of Appeal held that the prosecution had a duty to disclose the statements of a material witness to the defence, even if that witness was not being called to testify by the prosecution.
. . .
||In force from
||Preservation of Public Security (Sabah) Act 1962 (Revised 2023)
||1 March 2023 Date appointed for coming into operation of this revised edition pursuant to paragraph 6(1)(xxiii) of the Revision of Laws Act 1968 [Act 1]; Revised up to 15 February 2023; First enacted in 1962 as Sabah Ordinance No 6 of 1962
||Emergency Powers Ordinance
[Sabah Cap. 41]
|Preservation of Public Security Ordinance, 1962
[Sabah Ordinance No. 6 of 1962]
||Penang Free School Act 1920 (Revised 2023)
||1 March 2023 Date appointed for coming into operation of this revised edition pursuant to paragraph 6(1)(xxiii) of the Revision of Laws Act 1968 [Act 1]; Revised up to 15 February 2023; First enacted in 1920 as Straits Settlement Cap 259
||Penang Free School Ordinance, 1920
[S.S. Cap. 259]
||Pensions Act 1951 (Revised 2022)
||15 November 2022 Date appointed for coming into operation of this revised edition pursuant to paragraph 6(1)(xxiii) of the Revision of Laws Act 1968 [Act 1]; Revised up to 1 November 2022; First enacted in 1951 as Ordinance No 1 of 1951
||Anti-Sexual Harassment Act 2022
||Not Yet Inforce
||Independent Police Conduct Commission Act 2022
||1 July 2023 [PU(B) 574/2022]
||In force from
||Dangerous Drugs Act 1952 (Revised 1980)
||2 March 2023
||Customs Duties (Goods Under the Agreement on Comprehensive Economic Partnership Among the Government of the Member States of the Asean and Japan) Order 2020
||1 March 2023
||Perintah Jalan-Jalan Persekutuan (Pengurusan Persendirian) (Pungutan Tol) (Jambatan Dan Lebuhraya Laluan Kedua Malaysia-Singapura Dan Lebuhraya Perling) 1998
||1 Mac 2023
||Perenggan 2 dan Jadual Kedua
||Federal Roads (Private Management) (Collection of Tolls) (Malaysia-Singapore Second Crossing Bridge and Expressway and Perling Expressway) Order 1998
||1 March 2023
||Paragraph 2 and Second Schedule
||Anti-Money Laundering, Anti-Terrorism Financing and Proceeds of Unlawful Activities (Declaration of Specified Entities and Reporting Requirements) Order 2014
||16 February 2023
||Paragraph 3 and Schedule
||In force from
||Road Transport (Prohibition of Use of Road) (Federal Roads) (No. 17) Order 2022
||28 February 2023
||Perintah Menteri-Menteri Kerajaan Persekutuan 2022
||Lihat perenggan 1(2)
||Ministers of the Federal Government Order 2022
||See paragraph 1(2) of this Order
||Perintah Kawalan Harga Dan Antipencatutan (Penentuan Harga Maksimum) (No. 15) 2022
||8 Januari 2023 hingga 7 Februari 2023
||Price Control and Anti-Profiteering (Determination of Maximum Price) (No. 15) Order 2022
||8 January 2023 to 7 February 2023